Tuesday, August 15, 2017

Ixmiquilpan: The Last Judgment

Ixmiquilpan, the church front
San Miguel Ixmiquilpan is a simplified, scaled-down version of nearby Actopan, a substantial Augustinian monastery whose severe military lines are softened by the large shade trees of the park-like atrium.     
   Like Actopan too, the church and its adjacent convento are noted for their exceptional mural cycles, in particular the famous and much discussed “battle” frescoes along the nave. The Passion sequence in the sacristy, too, is of exceptional quality and interest.

Ixmiquilpan, the cloister
Less well known are the surviving murals in the convento, notably a poorly preserved Last Judgment in the handsome lower cloister.  
   Framed by a painted archway, only the upper part of the composition remains readable. The lower section, which included scenes of the Saved and presumably Hell and Damnation, is highly fragmentary.
Above, Christ sits in Glory on a rainbow arc, his feet planted on a globe. He is flanked by the companies of the Elect and the Religious, which include the customary figures of the crowned Virgin and John the Baptist. 
Angels sound trumpets and reach down to the Saved and the Condemned who would have appeared below. 
One vestige portrays a small group of the Saved being escorted Heavenward by an angel. The figures are carefully if naively outlined throughout in a warm grisaille, the only color apart from a golden brown reserved for the heads.
text © 2017 Richard D. Perry
photography courtesy of Niccolò Brooker
*Please review other posts on the Last Judgment: El LlanitoTotimehuacanSuchixtlahuacaHuaquechulaYanhuitlan; Actopan; Cuitzeo;

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

Cuitzeo, The Last Judgment

Raised on a bluff overlooking the shimmering shallow waters of Lake Cuitzeo, Santa Maria Magdalena Cuitzeo is the most sumptuous Augustinian priory in Michoacán. In 1550, the foundations for the monastery were laid on the site, using stone from the demolished temple of Curicaueri, the Tarascan sun god.
Set at the top of a series of rising enclosed forecourts, the church front is distinguished by its elegantly sculpted facade and a spacious convento on the south side.  
   The convento is fronted by a grand, arcaded portería atop a stepped terrace. Believed to have been added when the convento was remodeled in the early 1600s, the arcade is designed in a sumptuous Roman Renaissance manner quite distinct from the earlier, Plateresque church facade.
portería view with Last Judgment mural
The Murals
The convento at Cuitzeo is adorned throughout with murals, the majority of which are early in date and of great artistic interest and variety.

The principal narrative fresco in the porteria is a graphic Last Judgment covering the wall at the north end. Although the central figure of Christ is drawn in Renaissance style, the conventions of scale and iconography in the composition—the massed ranks of the Elect and the Religious above contrasted with the Purgatory and Damned descending into the yawning mouth of Hell below—hark back to medieval Christianity and bear comparison with portrayals of the Last Judgment at Acolman, Actopan and Xoxoteco.
Christ in Judgment with God the Father, the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist
Angel blowing horn
The assembly of the Elect
The Ranks of the Saved transported by angels to Heaven
The Condemned in flames with a horned beast and the Mouth of Hell
Like most of the murals at Cuitzeo it is painted in warm black and white, with red accents—notably the flames of Hell.

*Please review other posts on the Last Judgment: El LlanitoTotimehuacanSuchixtlahuacaHuaquechulaYanhuitlan; Actopan
text © 2017 Richard D. Perry.  images by the author and Niccolò Brooker

Wednesday, August 2, 2017

Actopan: The Last Judgment

This is another post in an occasional series on depictions of the Last Judgment in the arts of colonial Mexico.*
Everything is on a grand scale at St. Nicholas Actopan, a palatial priory that was the foremost Augustinian priory in Hidalgo. Its monumental architecture and visionary frescoes earn it a place among the greatest buildings of Mexico.
   The murals at Actopan are among the most varied and extensive of any in Mexico. They fall into at least two different categories: first the brightly colored, apocalyptic murals of the open chapel, which probably date from the 1560s, and then an assemblage of convento murals, which are a little later—mostly from the mid 1570s.

The Vault of Actopan
This local name for the great open chapel at Actopan succinctly captures one of its most striking features, the soaring barrel vault painted with a coffered pattern of crosses and octagons, based on the designs of the Renaissance architect Sebastiano Serlio. 

But the true glory of the Actopan chapel is its spectacular frescoes, on the end wall and along the sides. Only discovered in the 1970s, hidden beneath layers of whitewash and erased in places, they are executed on a huge scale in vivid reds, blues, browns and ochers. 
   Together with the closely related frescoes at the smaller chapel of Xoxoteco, they display the most vivid apocalyptic imagery of any Mexican murals of the 16th century. 

Our focus in this post is on the surviving frescoes of the apse or east wall of the chapel, in particular the panoramic Last Judgment scene.

The Last Judgment
As at Xoxoteco, the centerpiece of the cycle is a panoramic Last Judgment spread across the upper tympanum of the east wall.
Over sixty varied figures populate this rich and varied composition. In the center, above a multi-hued rainbow, a partly effaced Christ stands in judgment on a globe, flanked by the Company of the Elect. 
Underneath, an angel and a demon contest over a kneeling soul, pointing to a book of sins. On the right, the Damned tumble into the fires of Hell assisted by ferocious horned and taloned demons. (Note the feet of Christ on the globe at the top)
Below, angels blow trumpets to awaken the dead, who rise from their graves—aided by angels and menaced by demons.  
The Mouth of Hell
Although this motif, customarily a vital element in Last Judgment scenes, does not appear in the central lunette, it is depicted in two other apsidal panels, as well as on the side walls of the chapel, where the image introduces the galleries of murals depicting the torments of Hell.
Flaming Mouth of Hell with Demons and Angels (apsidal fresco #3)  
Mouth of Hell with horsemen of the Apocalypse (apsidal fresco #6)
Mouth of Hell.  south wall;                                   north wall
For good measure, a second, partial Last Judgment scene fills another lunette beside the upper cloister of the convento. Closely related in composition and vivid coloration to the open chapel version, it is less sweeping but better preserved in some of the details. The figure of Christ here is fully displayed, while the souls emerging from their graves are again vividly portrayed.
*Please review our other posts on the Last Judgment: El Llanito; Totimehuacan; Suchixtlahuaca; Huaquechula; Yanhuitlan
text and graphic © 2017 Richard D. Perry
color images by the author and courtesy of Niccolò Brooker

Thursday, July 27, 2017

El Llanito: The Loreto Chapel

In our previous post we described the Last Judgment murals at El Llanito. Here we look at the frescoes in the Loreto Chapel adjacent to the church, also attributed to native artist Miguel Antonio Martínez de Pocasangre.
The Loreto Chapel, wall one
The Loreto Chapel
The tiny Loreto chapel, or chapel of the Litany, is a late 18th century addition to the church. Currently under restoration, the murals decorating the chapel walls and ceiling are the best preserved of the Pocasangre works at El Llanito. 
   In contrast to the disturbing Last Judgment scenes of the portería, the principal subject of the mural program here is the Litany of the Virgin—a devotional theme we saw portrayed in the painted ceilings of Michoacán (e.g.: at ZacánQuinceo and San Lorenzo). 
The Loreto Chapel, wall two
Gate of Heaven;                                                      Cause of Our Joy;
The wall frescoes depict verses adapted from a widely circulated, illustrated edition of the Litany of Loreto (KlauberAugsburg 1750), each framed by linked cartouches with the accompanying Latin text. 
Virgin of Prayer
Comforter of the Afflicted
Loreto Chapel ceiling detail
As at Atotonilco, the scenes are rendered in a popular baroque style, albeit framed in a more orthodox manner. Reds and blues predominate, enhanced by washes of earth tones.
text © 2017 Richard D. Perry
color photography courtesy of Robert Jackson and others

Friday, July 21, 2017

El Llanito: The Last Judgment

In a previous post we reviewed the 18th century paintings in the historic church of El Llanito, just outside Dolores Hidalgo—the only other known examples to have been executed by Miguel Antonio Martínez de Pocasangre, the noted muralist of the nearby Santuario de Atotonilco
Two other mural sequences by the artist are found in adjacent locations: the entry portería to the casa cural and the Loreto Chapel. In this post we focus on the murals that cover the vault and side walls of the portería. 
Large fragments survive of these murals, currently in poor condition because of neglect and exposure. While the overall sequence of the murals and their source are unclear, although unsigned they are believed to be the work of Pocasangre, probably dating from the same period as the Atotonilco murals or possibly a little earlier (c. 1770).  
Painted along the quadripartite vaults, the panels illustrate the End of Days or Last Judgment in dramatic and often bloodcurdling detail. A cautionary display greeting the believer about to enter the building.
They include vivid scenes of burning buildings, sword wielding angels and horned devils herding tormented sinners into the embrace of serpents and the flames of Hell. Animated, bug eyed figures are vividly colored in red, orange and brown hues.

text © 2017 Richard D. Perry
Last Judgment images by Robert Jackson and Niccolò Brooker. 
thank you Robert for bringing these murals to my attention
see some of our earlier posts on Mexican Murals:  CuautinchánXometlaCulhuacánZacualpanOzumbaTlalmanalcoIxmilquilpanMama;  IzucarTree muralsTepeapulcoTulaEpazoyucanZempoalaYecapixtla;

Sunday, July 16, 2017

El Señor de El Llanito

This is one of three posts on the murals and paintings of the historic church of El Llanito, Guanajuato, by the noted colonial mestizo artist Antonio Martínez de Pocasangre.
The venerable church of El Llanito, just outside Dolores Hidalgo, is one of the earliest temples in the region and the shrine of El Señor del Llanito (aka San Salvador de los Afligidos)a miracle working crucifix with a large following among the indigenous Otomí of the areawhose feast day on August is widely celebrated in the region.
   This scarred, 16th century cristo de cañamost likely created in Michoacán, was probably brought to the area by the early missionaries.
El Señor del Llanito, detail
According to legend, in 1559 a passing bullion train heard cries and the muleteers discovered the crucifix beneath a mesquite tree by the river. They took it to the historic local Hacienda de la Erre, where it was placed in the hacienda chapel.
   After it went missing on several occasions, only to be found under the same tree, the hacendado, the Mariscal de Castilla, donated the miraculous object to the villagers where it was kept in a primitive chapel duly erected on the spot. Much later it was installed in the current riverside shrine, built in the 1770s, where the image now rests on a special altar.
  The 1559 event is memorialized in one of several large paintings mounted along the nave, now attributable to the regional painter Antonio Martínez de Pocasangre, who also executed the murals in the entry porteria and the adjacent Loreto chapel.
Other paintings in the nave—all in need of conservation—include a Deposition and a Last Supper.
The Deposition
The Last Supper
text © 2017 Richard D. Perry
color images courtesy of Niccolò Brooker